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Tuesday, 15 January 2013

SIMPLE PENDULUM EXPERIMENT


  1. Inference :  When the length of a simple pendulum increases, the period of oscillation also increases. // The period of pendulum is affected by the length of the thread.

  1. Hypothesis :  The longer the length of a simple pendulum, the longer will be the period of oscillation
                           
      3.   Aim :  To find the relationship between the length of a simple pendulum and the period 
                       of oscillation.

      4.   Variable :  a) Manipulated variable : Length, l
               b) Responding variable  : Period, T.
               c)  Fixed variable            : Mass of pendulum bob. 

5.       Materials/ Apparatus : Retort stand, pendulum bob, thread, metre rule, stop watch.

 FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM

7. Procedure     :
     a)  Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure above.// A small brass or
          bob was attached to the thread. The thread was held by a clamp of a
          the retort stand.
           
      b) The length of the thread , l  was measured by a metre rule, starting
           with 90.0 cm. The bob of the pendulum was displaced and released.

      c)  The time for 20 complete oscillations, t was taken using the stop
watch.  Calculate the period of oscillation by using, T = t / 20

      d) The experiment was repeated using different lengths such as
           80.0 cm. 70.0 cm, 60.0 cm, 50.0 cm and 40.0 cm.

Length of string, l / cm
Time taken for 10
oscillation, t (s)
Period of oscillation
T2
(s2 )

   t 1
  t 2
Average, t
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0

25.2
28.1
31.0
33.5
35.7
38.2
25.1
28.2
31.0
33.6
35.9
37.9
25.2
28.2
31.0
33.6
35.8
38.1
1.26
1.41
1.55
1.68
1.79
1.91
1.59
1.99
2.40
2.82
3.20
3.65












8. Plotting the graph

Notes :

  a)   Plotting the graph

·         The graph should be labeled by a heading

·         All axes should be labeled  with quantities and their respective units.

·         The manipulated variable (l) should be plotted on the x-axis while the responding variable (T2 ) should be plotted on the y-axis

·         Odd scales such as 1:3,  1:7 , 1:9 0r 1 :11 should be avoided in plotting  graph.

·         Make sure that the transference of data from the table to the graph is accurate.

·         Draw the best straight line.
- the line that passes through most of the points plotted such that is balanced by the number of points above and below the straight line.

·         make sure that the size  of the graph  is large enough,  which is, not less than half the size of the graph paper or.(  > 8 cm x 10 cm )

10. Discussion / Precaution of the experiment / to improve the accuracy
                 
a)      The bob of the pendulum was displaced with a small  angle
b)      The amplitude of the oscillation  of a simple pendulum  is small.
c)      The simple pendulum oscillate in a vertical plane only.
d)      Switch off the fan to reduce the air resistance

    11. Conclusion
                 The  length of simple pendulum is directly  proportional  to
      the square of the period  of oscillation. //

      T2 is directly proportional to l  (the straight line graph passing
      through the origin)



8 comments:

  1. how do i get the t^2 divided by s^2?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. what do you mean by that o.O?
      s^2 is a unit for t^2... :)

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    2. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  3. how can you compare the theoretical results to the measured experimental?

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