A student should be able to :
1. Identify variables in a given situation,
2. identify a question suitable for scientific investigation,
3. form a hypothesis,
4. design and carry out a simple experiment to test the hypothesis,
5. record and present data in a suitable form,
6. interpret data to draw a conclusion,
7. write a report of the investigation.
a) A scientific investigation begins with observation. When observing,
we come out some questions. (i.e : hearing, smelling, touching,
b) Making inference is a early assessment or explanation that is
carried out to answer the question raised. Inference is an early conclusion to what we observed
c) Form a hypothesis which is the statement of relationship between
the manipulated variable and the responding variable we would
d) Aim has to be stated so that all the investigating effort is centred
on the main subject.
e) Identify all the variables ;
i ) Manipulated variable is a quantity we manipulate /
variable which causes other secondary variables to change.
ii) Responding variable is the quantity which is affected by the
manipulated variable and is measured experimentally.
iii) Fixed variable is the quantity that does not change
throughout the experiment.
f) Apparatus / Materials needed to be listed according its specification
example measuring instrument to ensure the success the
g) Procedure is the sequence of action or operation in order to carry
out the experiment according to the instructions given.
h) Observation is the listing and tabulation of all data obtained in the
i) Analysing of data can be carried out by plotting the graph, followed
by the interpretation of graph or calculation to obtain the required
j) Discussion needs to be stated to find out whether the result obtained support the stated hypothesis. Precautions of the experiment can be suggested to overcome the weakness, to reduce the experimental error or to improve the result of the experiment.
k) A conclusion is stated concerning the result of the experiment
(is written in accordance with the aim of the experiment and based on graph).
By comparing with the aim stated, this will determine
whether the hypothesis is accepted or rejected.