## Tuesday, 15 January 2013

### SIMPLE PENDULUM EXPERIMENT

1. Inference :  When the length of a simple pendulum increases, the period of oscillation also increases. // The period of pendulum is affected by the length of the thread.

1. Hypothesis :  The longer the length of a simple pendulum, the longer will be the period of oscillation

3.   Aim :  To find the relationship between the length of a simple pendulum and the period
of oscillation.

4.   Variable :  a) Manipulated variable : Length, l
b) Responding variable  : Period, T.
c)  Fixed variable            : Mass of pendulum bob.

5.       Materials/ Apparatus : Retort stand, pendulum bob, thread, metre rule, stop watch.

FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM

7. Procedure     :
a)  Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure above.// A small brass or
bob was attached to the thread. The thread was held by a clamp of a
the retort stand.

b) The length of the thread , l  was measured by a metre rule, starting
with 90.0 cm. The bob of the pendulum was displaced and released.

c)  The time for 20 complete oscillations, t was taken using the stop
watch.  Calculate the period of oscillation by using, T = t / 20

d) The experiment was repeated using different lengths such as
80.0 cm. 70.0 cm, 60.0 cm, 50.0 cm and 40.0 cm.

 Length of string, l / cm Time taken for 10 oscillation, t (s) Period of oscillation T T2 (s2 ) t 1 t 2 Average, t 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 25.2 28.1 31.0 33.5 35.7 38.2 25.1 28.2 31.0 33.6 35.9 37.9 25.2 28.2 31.0 33.6 35.8 38.1 1.26 1.41 1.55 1.68 1.79 1.91 1.59 1.99 2.40 2.82 3.20 3.65

8. Plotting the graph

Notes :

a)   Plotting the graph

·         The graph should be labeled by a heading

·         All axes should be labeled  with quantities and their respective units.

·         The manipulated variable (l) should be plotted on the x-axis while the responding variable (T2 ) should be plotted on the y-axis

·         Odd scales such as 1:3,  1:7 , 1:9 0r 1 :11 should be avoided in plotting  graph.

·         Make sure that the transference of data from the table to the graph is accurate.

·         Draw the best straight line.
- the line that passes through most of the points plotted such that is balanced by the number of points above and below the straight line.

·         make sure that the size  of the graph  is large enough,  which is, not less than half the size of the graph paper or.(  > 8 cm x 10 cm )

10. Discussion / Precaution of the experiment / to improve the accuracy

a)      The bob of the pendulum was displaced with a small  angle
b)      The amplitude of the oscillation  of a simple pendulum  is small.
c)      The simple pendulum oscillate in a vertical plane only.
d)      Switch off the fan to reduce the air resistance

11. Conclusion
The  length of simple pendulum is directly  proportional  to
the square of the period  of oscillation. //

T2 is directly proportional to l  (the straight line graph passing
through the origin)

1. how do i get the t^2 divided by s^2?

1. what do you mean by that o.O?
s^2 is a unit for t^2... :)

2. This comment has been removed by the author.

3. s= seconds. therefore its seconds squared

4. s= seconds. therefore its seconds squared

5. its T^2 not t^2, therefore its Period (the time taken for one oscillation) and is measured in s^2

6. Correct.Therefore the period T=t/30 could be this.

7. Use ur common sense if u have one

8. what is the precaution of this experiment

9. THIS SAVED MY GRADE <3

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3. how can you compare the theoretical results to the measured experimental?

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6. i have a doubt in this tabulation for the experiment. the author mentioned T=t/20,(that means time /20 oscilation),But in the tabulation he mentioned for oscilation,i dont understand that,is it a mistake or what?.can you please explain..

1. I think there is a typo in the table. the average time for '10' oscillations in the table has been divided by 20 to give T, so table heading should be for '20' oscillations really

2. yeah, you are right.

7. How much will g vary at a place and nearby places?

8. Ive taken inspiration from this report to conduct my own for my first year lab project at uni, who can i reference this too? i.e. name and date of this report published

9. Why wouldn't angle measurement affect the time?

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12. why is it necessary to record time with respect to the reference mark at the equilibrium position of the bob?

13. why is it necessary to add the radius of the bob to the length of the string to know the length of the pendulum??

1. you need to treat the bob as a mass at a point. the point we use is the centre of mass of the bob, and is at a distance of length of string + radius of bob away from the point which remains stationary at top of pendulum

14. how do you calculate period of oscillation?

1. pick a point on the path of the bob - as it passes its lowest point in the centre is usually easiest. Time how long it takes for the bob to pass this point 20 times going in the same direction eg left to right. divide that time by 20 to get the time of one oscillation which is centre to right, all the way to left and then back to centre

15. uncertainity for g is not included

16. Why do we use 20 oscillations rather than one oscillation?

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18. How can i get T^2 in the table.

19. thank you very much for the clear methods, maybe add a risk assessment in your future experiment posts? :)

20. I want different question of bob pendulum and how to solve

21. How do you find the gradient of the slope/best fit line?

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23. can somebody please explain the hypothesis for me???

24. How does mass affect the oscillation of a body

25. I m searching for acceleration due to gravity using simple pendulum

26. Thank You very much! This helped me a lot on my science project.

27. Hi again! Just wanna ask about something. What will the background info be since my teacher wants to know that

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30. Why is it important that the angle used is 10 degrees?

31. This comment has been removed by the author.

32. This is really an interesting blog as it focuses on the very important topic. i came to know about so many things or tips.

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33. thanks this is much helpful to me on my lap report

34. Pls state the value of the constant you deduced and the estimated errors I don't get this

35. I really found this site interesting.........Many thanks

36. How to find g from graph

37. What is the need of several oscillations instead of few

38. How to find slope from the graph?

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40. What if i consider my g to be 4 pie squared divided by the gradient of the graph of T squared against l?

41. What if i consider my g to be 4 pie squared divided by the gradient of the graph of T squared against l?